Possible Effect of Human-Experimenter on Homeopathic-Like Aqueous Preparations
Korenbaum, Vladimir, Tatiana Chernysheva, Victorya Galay, Roman Galay, Alexandr Ustinov, Sergei Zakharkov, and Nikolai Bunkin. “Possible Effect of Human-Experimenter on Homeopathic-Like Aqueous Preparations.” Water 13, no. 11 (2021): 1475.
Homeopathy is one of the applications in structured water influencing human health. The objective is to search for the physical basis of homeopathy. This methodology includes a study of absorption in the far IR spectral range, absorption and refraction in THz diapason, dynamic light scattering in the UV–near IR spectral range for the blinded samples of homeopathic-like preparations (HLP) of several parent substances and hidden/apparent controls, and statistical analysis on the significance of distinctions in spectral data between ensembles of HLP of each parent substance and ensembles of hidden/apparent controls. The analysis of nine independent blind studies of aqueous HLP of several parent substances gave statistically significant spectral differences in some preparations with an apparent control (25 comparisons of 35) and a hidden control (11 comparisons of 40). The revealed dominance in the occurrence frequency of differences in any HLP with an apparent control can be treated as involving most of these changes to the samples by the spectral measuring process. This allows interpreting the main mechanism of manifestation of the spectral changes found as the “observer effect”. The therapeutic effect of HLP may be assumed as a combination of the “observer effect” from the physician side and a “placebo effect” from the patient side.
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